b'may or may not be a problem among students at your institution. Students who do abuse prescription stimulants are significantly more likely to also abuse alcohol and other drugs. Research finds that 31 percent of undergraduates meet criteria for substance abuse and 6 percent meet the criteria for dependency. While the level of abuse drops among graduate students, the rate of dependency does not. As a faculty member, you may not always be sure of the cause, but you may notice the impact of students substance use on academic performance. This may look like irregular attendance, missed assignments, uneven class participation, and poor performance on papers, projects, and exams. If you were to confront a student about your observations, the student might not make the connection between his or her substance use and his or her behavior. This is further complicated by the fact that substance problems often co-occur with other mental health problems such as clinical depression, eating disorders, and attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder. Health care providers indicate that a faculty member expressing concern for a student, regardless of the cause of the problem, can have a profound and positive impact on the student. It may serve as the catalyst for a student accessing help or recognizing that he or she needs a higher level of care. Research regarding brief interventions indicates several effective strategies for initiating a conversation (withGeneral Concerns142'